Ammonia-Powered Diesel Engines
The Iowa Energy Center is funding research at Iowa State University on the performance of diesel engines using ammonia.
Since ammonia will not compression ignite except at extremely high compression ratios, a small amount (~5% energy basis) of high-cetane fuel is injected with the ammonia to promote combustion.
The work, using a John Deere tractor engine, has demonstrated successful low-NOx operation. By combining 5% biodiesel and 95% ammonia, the engine was operated at 110% of rated load.
NH3 Fuel Conference Papers
2012: Update on Ammonia Engine Combustion Using Direct Fuel Injection [PDF]
2010: Update on Ammonia Engine Development Using Direct Fuel Injection [PDF]
2009: NH3 Diesel Update — Fuel Injection Strategies [PDF]
2008: Combustion Efficiency and Exhaust Emissions of Ammonia Combustion in Diesel Engines [PDF]
2007: Demonstrate Ammonia Combustion in Diesel Engine [PDF]