Tag Archives: NH3 Transportation

Ammonia Fuel Safety

Trevor Brown
AmmoniaIndustry.com, United States

NH3 Fuel Conference, Minneapolis, November 1, 2017
AIChE Annual Meeting, Topical Conference: NH3 Energy+


This paper introduces the existing literature on the safety of using ammonia as a fuel, which provides comparative data for a range of traditional and alternative fuels and energy carriers. The studies reviewed conclude that risk levels associated with using ammonia as a fuel are “similar to those of gasoline,” or “similar, if not lower than for the other fuels,” also including hydrogen, methanol, LPG, and CNG. Ammonia as a fuel can meet all “acceptable” risk levels in even the most stringent regulatory jurisdictions. Continue reading

Japan – a future market for Australian solar ammonia

Keith Lovegrove
ITP Thermal Pty Ltd, Australia

NH3 Fuel Conference, Los Angeles, September 20, 2016


Japan and Australia are intimately linked in energy trade. Australia counts energy exports as a major source of foreign exchange income and Japan, which uses nearly 4 times the primary energy as Australia, imports nearly all of it. Approximately 40% of Australia’s coal exports are bought by Japan and were worth $AUD15.4 billion in 2012-13. Over 70% of Australia’s LNG exports went to Japan in the same period and earned over $AUD12billion. Future energy supply is high on the agenda for Japan. Currently 43% of its primary energy is in the form of imported oil mostly from the Middle East. The cost of this together with energy security concerns is a major driver for change. Post the Fukushima Nuclear disaster, the previous 8% contribution from Nuclear dropped to zero and there is much opposition to reinstating it. Japan still has a strong policy agenda to reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

One of the identified routes to a cleaner energy future is the wider use of hydrogen as a fuel in both the transport and power generation sectors. There are a range of technology approaches that allow solar technologies to produce transportable alternative fuels that could form the basis for a future clean energy trade with Japan. If energy is transported as an energy dense liquid in conventional tanker ships, then the effective efficiency of transport over distances of 6000km (Australia to Japan) is greater than 98%. Three options for importing hydrogen fuel into Japan are under serious consideration; cryogenic liquid hydrogen, reversible hydrogenation of toluene, and conversion of hydrogen to ammonia. Ammonia is increasingly considered as the favourable path. It offers higher energy density, leverages an existing global industry and has the potential for direct combustion in combined cycle power plants and heavy transport. Considering Australia’s vast untapped solar resource together with the existing energy trade history plus a history of upstream investments by Japanese companies in Australian Energy developments, suggests the two countries are ideal partners in a future solar fuels trade.


Download this presentation here [PDF, 3.8MB]


2008: Ammonia Production and Baseload Solar Power [PDF]


Keith Lovegrove, ITP
Learn more about the 2016 NH3 Fuel Conference

Ammonia Storage Materials Using Metal Halides and Borohydrides

Yoshitsugu Kojima
Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, Japan

NH3 Fuel Conference, Los Angeles, September 20, 2016


Ammonia (NH3) is easily liquefied by compression at 1 MPa and 25 °C, and has a highest volumetric hydrogen density of 10.7 kg H2 /100L in hydrogen carriers. The volumetric hydrogen density is above 1.5 times of liquid hydrogen at 0.1 MPa and -253 °C. The vapor pressure of liquid NH3 is similar to propane. Moreover it has a high gravimetric hydrogen density of 17.8 mass%. NH3 is burnable substance and has a side as an energy carrier which is different from other hydrogen carriers. The heat of formation of NH3 is 30.6 kJ/molH2. The value is about 1/10 of heat of combustion for hydrogen. Continue reading

A Hazard Assessment of Ammonia as a Fuel

Understanding the Hazards and Managing the Risks / Threats of Ammonia as a Fuel

Gary Smith, President, Ammonia Safety and Training Institute (ASTI) / Tony Garcia, Hill Brothers Chemical Corp. / and John Mott, General Manager of Gordon Brothers
Tenth Annual NH3 Fuel Conference, September 23, 2013
Continue reading

A Green Ammonia Economy

Yoshitsugu Kojima
Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University
Tenth Annual NH3 Fuel Conference, September 23, 2013
Continue reading

Quest Consultants: NH3 fuel risk analysis


Quest Consultants, for Iowa State University, June 2009 Continue reading

Riso: Safety assessment of ammonia as a transport fuel

Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, February 2005 Continue reading