Government Resources

We are expanding this page on an ongoing basis, to provide a more comprehensive collection of international government resources relating to NH3 fuel. If you would like to suggest information that should be included here, please leave a comment or e-mail us.


United States
Europe: Italy, Estonia

United States

Washington State
Washington is currently the only state in the US to have passed legislation that explicitly defines NH3 (anhydrous ammonia) as an alternative fuel.

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)
In 2006, the DOE published a white paper on the Potential Roles of Ammonia in a Hydrogen Economy, A Study of Issues Related to the Use Ammonia for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage.

In 2011, the DOE’s Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center recognized NH3 as an emerging fuel.

U.S. Department of Defense
Various declassified reports from the US military’s research into NH3 Fuel since 1965, including information about the Energy Depot Concept, are available online.

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
The USDA’s Value-Added Producer grant program is actively supporting projects to produce renewable NH3 from biomass. The 2013 grants included a number of biomass-to-fertilizer projects.

Related NH3 Fuel Conference paper, 2009, by Chris Cassidy, USDA: 
USDA Renewable Energy Funding Opportunities [PDF].

California Air Resources Board (CARB)
Related NH3 Fuel Conference paper, 2007 Keynote Speech, by Gary Yee, CARB:
Ammonia as a Motor Vehicle Fuel in California [PDF].


The Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU) is a public-private partnership between the European Commission, fuel cell and hydrogen industry members (NEW-IG: New Energy World Industry Grouping), and the research community (N.ERGHY: New European Research Grouping on Fuel Cells and Hydrogen).

See their Annual Implementation Plan 2013 (PDF). They also maintain an online archive of project funding from previous years:

  • NH3 4 PWR” Validation of integrated fuel cell system readiness (Diverse Energy, PowerCube, project duration September 2010 to August 2013)
  • TowerPower” Demonstration of fuel cell based integrated generator systems to power off-grid cell phone towers, using ammonia fuel (Diverse Energy, PowerCube, project duration November 2011 to October 2014)

Related NH3 Fuel News:
Project Alkammonia: Ammonia-fed Alkaline Fuel Cells


Regione Toscana
Regione Toscana is co-funding the SAVIA project, a public-private partnership to develop ammonia fueled vehicles in Italy. SAVIA (Sistema di Alimentazione di Veicoli ad Idrogeno ed Ammoniaca, translates as Vehicle Power Systems from Hydrogen and Ammonia) includes project leader Pont-Tech (who provide a one-page SAVIA project summary [PDF]), with partners EDI – Progetti & Sviluppo, Acta Energy (who are also partners in Project Alkammonia), BIGAS, University of Pisa, and Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna.

Related NH3 Fuel News:
Ammonia fueled sports car: Marangoni Toyota GT86 Eco Explorer


City of Paldiski
PAKRI Science and Industrial Park (PAKRI), a hub for renewable energy R&D, testing, education, and start-ups,  is one of the priority projects in Harju County, the largest county in Estonia. PAKRI’s autonomous 25MW smart-grid (wind, solar, and geothermal) will use surplus energy to produce ammonia as an energy buffering solution. The ammonia will be stored without any losses, and either converted into power on demand or sold as an end product (monetizing otherwise stranded resources). By 2020 the PAKRI Science and Industrial Park aims to be the leading Northern European competence center in the fields of renewable energy, energy in housing, and renewable energy grid integration.

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