Ammonia Renewable Energy Fuel Systems at Continental Scale

William C. Leighty
The Leighty Foundation, United States

NH3 Fuel Conference, Minneapolis, November 1, 2017
AIChE Annual Meeting, Topical Conference: NH3 Energy+


We must soon “run the world on renewables” but cannot, and should not try to, accomplish this entirely with electricity transmission. New, abundant, low-cost, unconventional natural gas supplies are finite; burning adds CO2 to Earth’s atmosphere.

Humanity’s goal must be nothing less than: Transforming the world’s largest industry from ~80% fossil to ~100% renewable, CO2-emission-free energy sources as quickly as we prudently and profitably can.

We should now carefully consider using pipeline networks, rather than the electricity grid, for solving the three salient technical problems of renewable energy (RE) at lower cost:

  1. Transmission: from diverse, stranded, remote, rich RE resources
  2. Storage: intermittent RE becomes annually firm and dispatchable
  3. Integration: with conventional, extant energy, for firm quality supply

Electricity systems are not well suited for gathering, transmission, storage, and delivery of time-varying solar, wind, and other renewable energy resources. The renewable energy industry should consider emulating the natural gas and ammonia industries, because:

  1. Gaseous hydrogen (GH2) fuel may be stored in large, deep, solution-mined salt caverns for ~$0.20/kWh capital cost;
  2. Liquid anhydrous ammonia (NH3) fuel may be stored in large, refrigerated, steel, “atmospheric” surface tanks for ~$0.10/kWh capital cost.

We need to supply all energy, not just electricity, from diverse renewable energy (RE) resources, both distributed and centralized, where the world’s richest RE resources – of large geographic extent and high intensity – are stranded: far from end-users with inadequate or nonexistent gathering and transmission systems to deliver the energy. Electricity energy storage cannot affordably firm large, intermittent renewables at annual scale, while carbon-free gaseous hydrogen (GH2) and liquid anhydrous ammonia (NH3) fuels can.

Read the abstract at the AIChE website.


Presentations may be made available to download after the conference.


2014: NH3 from Renewable-source Electricity, Water, and Air: Technology Options and Economics Modeling
2012: NH3 Compared with other “Fuels” [PDF]
2010: Making Ammonia Fuel From Alaska’s Abundant Stranded Renewable Energy [PDF]
2009: Ammonia Fuel Production with Firming Storage from Diverse, Stranded, Renewable Energy Resources [PDF]
2008: Energy Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia
2007: The Renewable Ammonia Farm Bill Initiative [PDF]
2006: Costs of Delivered Energy from Large-scale, Diverse, Stranded, Renewable Resources, Transmitted and Firmed as Electricity, Gaseous Hydrogen, and Ammonia [PDF]
2005: The Great Plains Wind Resource [PDF]


The Leighty Foundation , Alaska, United States
Learn more about the NH3 Fuel Conference 2017

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