Tag Archives: Engines

Auto-Ignition Kinetics of Ammonia at Intermediate Temperatures and High Pressures

Xiaoyu He, Bo Shu, Kai Moshammer, Ravi Fernandes*, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany; David Nascimento, Mario Costa, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

15th Annual NH3 Fuel Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, October 31, 2018
NH3 Energy+ Topical Conference at the AIChE Annual Meeting


The anxiety over global greenhouse gas emissions has intensified the demand for the development and use of CO2-neutral energy technologies. Ammonia is now attracting attention as a carbon-free energy carrier, because it has good energy density (22.5 MJ/kg) and can be easily liquefied (about 10 bar at 298 K). In addition, ammonia is produced according to the Haber-Bosch process, which makes it one of the most widely-produced inorganic chemical in the world. It could also be produced with renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy using P2X technology.

As a potential fuel for applications in gas turbines and gas engines, ammonia is less reactive than most hydrocarbons and its ignition and combustion characteristics are not yet well understood. A major part of the previous research has focused on the ammonia oxidation at high temperatures or low pressures [1-3], while ignition measurements for pure ammonia or ammonia mixed with other gaseous fuels (such as hydrogen or methane) at high pressures and low-to-intermediate temperature is rare.

Rapid compression machines (RCMs) are regarded as an important experimental apparatus for investigating auto-ignition behavior at low-to-intermediate temperature conditions, which are quite relevant to the application in internal combustion engines and gas turbines [4,5].

In this study, autoignition properties of NH3/O2 and NH3/H2/O2 mixtures have been studied in a RCM at pressures from 20 to 60 bar, temperatures from 950 to 1150 K, and at equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 2. The effect of hydrogen-ammonia ratio in fuel has been also investigated. Continue reading

Improved Method of Using Hydrogen and Ammonia Fuels for an Internal Combustion Engine

David Toyne*, Solutions for Automation, USA; Jay Schmuecker, Pinehurst Farm, USA

15th Annual NH3 Fuel Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, October 31, 2018
NH3 Energy+ Topical Conference at the AIChE Annual Meeting


A tractor mounted internal combustion engine is fueled by Hydrogen or a combination of Hydrogen and Ammonia.

Developments of an improved method of fuel injection and ignition control. Hydrogen is port injected in the intake manifold, and liquid ammonia is injected in the throttle body. A dual fuel ECU, Engine Control Unit, controls the fuel mixtures and the firing of multiple coils for ignition.
The paper will address significant engine performance improvements and the resulting fuel consumption and engine emissions levels. Continue reading

Ship Operation Using LPG and Ammonia As Fuel on MAN B&W Dual Fuel ME-LGIP Engines

René Sejer Laursen, MAN Diesel & Turbo, Denmark

15th Annual NH3 Fuel Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, October 31, 2018
NH3 Energy+ Topical Conference at the AIChE Annual Meeting


LPG has been used as fuel in the car industry for many years and now, with Exmar and Statoil’s orders for ocean-going ships fitted with the dual fuel ME-LGIP engine, LPG will be used on marine engines as well. The new engine series is currently being developed to match all types of bigger merchant ships. This order was made in consequence of the new 2020 0.5% sulphur fuel cap, but this step forward has not stopped the discussion and interest in lowering CO2, NOx, SOx and particulate emissions even further. On the contrary, it has actually been further fuelled by the latest IMO meeting targeting a 50%-cut in greenhouse gas emissions from ocean-going shipping by 2050 compared with 2008.

Because the world fleet has increased since 2008, and thus CO2 emissions as well, it has been realised that this goal cannot be met without the use of carbon-free fuels. In shipping, 30 years corresponds to the lifetime of a ship, and owners will therefore soon need to consider this when they select the propulsion solution for their next ship. And as marine engine maker, MAN Diesel & Turbo needs to be fully prepared.

Using LPG as fuel on the two-stroke ME-LGIP engine offers similar emission benefits as with LNG, which reduces emissions significantly compared with MDO. Therefore, there are very good environmental reasons for using this fuel in coastal areas, on inland waterways and on deep sea. The LGIP engine solution system can also be applied on engine sizes from 5 to 85 MW, which are suitable for tankers, bulk carriers, container vessels, etc.

It is expected that the need to reduce CO2 emissions will fuel a continued growth in shipping. And because sea transportation has proven to be less CO2 polluting than both trucks and trains using fossil fuels this trend is expected to continue. Furthermore, the world population is increasing as well, and this is expected to increase the shipping fleet. So significant CO2 reduction is mandatory in shipping, and this can be improved by using carbon-free fuels such as bio-LPG/LNG, and the so-called “electric fuels”, etc. There are also plans to remove CO2 from methane to produce carbon-free ammonia, but in order to be fully carbon free, the CO2 should be removed by, for example, injecting it into the seabed. MAN Diesel & Turbo already have dual fuel engines in our engine programme that can operate on LNG and methanol, but ammonia as a fuel has not yet been investigated for use on two-stroke engines.

This paper describes the technology behind the ME-LGIP dual fuel MAN B&W two-stroke engines, using LPG as fuel, and its associated LPG tank and fuel supply systems. The engine requires a gas supply pressure of 50-bar and controlled to a temperature of 45°C. At this temperature and pressure, the LPG is liquid, and different fuel supply solutions are available for generating this pressure for the liquid. Hence, the ME-LGIP for LPG will use liquid gas for injection, contrary to the ME-GI for LNG, where the methane is injected in gaseous form. All the way from tank to engine, the LPG remain in liquid phase, and conventional pumps can be used to generate the pressure. Furthermore, we have lately found that this engine technology, with minor modification, can also be used to burn ammonia, so the paper will also describe the modification needed in order to build an engine that is able to burn LPG as well as ammonia.

Safety is a concern when both LPG and ammonia is used as fuel on an engine located in an engine room. This is because LPG in gaseous form, contrary to methane, is heavier than air and will drop in case of leakage, and because ammonia in a gaseous form is toxic. This safety has been analysed, and our safety considerations and precautions will be described in details. Continue reading

Development of New Combustion Strategy for Internal Combustion Engine Fueled By Pure Ammonia

Donggeun Lee*, Hyungeun Min, Hyunho Park, Han Ho Song
Seoul National University, South Korea

NH3 Fuel Conference, Minneapolis, November 1, 2017
AIChE Annual Meeting, Topical Conference: NH3 Energy+


Ammonia is considered as a promising hydrogen-carrier with good storability and transportability, which, then, can be used as a carbon-free fuel as needed. However, once the ammonia is produced from the regenerative sources, it is essential to develop the energy conversion device of the chemical energy stored in ammonia into some other useful forms, e.g. electricity. Among various candidates, we focus on an internal combustion engine as energy conversion device which can be applied on automobile, power plant and etc. and can use ammonia as fuel only by simple modification. There have been many studies on the use of ammonia as an engine fuel, but rather poor combustion characteristics of ammonia for conventional engine combustion techniques was seen as difficult to overcome and nearly all the researchers compromised by using additional fuels which combusted better than ammonia for their purposes. Continue reading

Key Life Cycle Assessment Numbers for NH3, Green and Brown Energy

Yusuf Bicer1, Ibrahim Dincer1, Calin Zamfirescu1, Greg Vezina2*, Frank Raso2
1 Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, and 2 Hydrofuel Inc., Canada

NH3 Fuel Conference, Los Angeles, September 20, 2016


This talk will present the results of two recent studies.

In the first study, four different ammonia production methods are comparatively evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). Continue reading

Cracking ammonia

Bill David*1,2, Josh Makepeace2, Hazel Hunter1 and Tom Wood1
1ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK
2Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, UK

13th Annual NH3 Fuel Conference, September 19, 2016


In this talk, I will discuss our latest research in developing novel ammonia cracking catalysts. While ammonia can be used directly as a fuel in high temperature fuel cells, internal combustion engines and gas turbine, the ability to crack ammonia affordably and effectively increases the range of possibilities for utilising ammonia as an energy vector. Continue reading

Piloting a Combined Heat and Power / Distributed Generation System, Powered by Carbon-Free, Renewable-Based Anhydrous Ammonia


The UCLA Sustainable Technology & Policy Program (UCLA-STPP) serves as the host of the 2016 NH3 Fuel Conference.

Peter Sinsheimer
Executive Director, UCLA-STPP, Los Angeles, CA

including NH3 Engine Overview
Eddie Sturman, Sturman Industries, USA

13th Annual NH3 Fuel Conference, September 20, 2016


UCLA-STPP is an interdisciplinary science / policy research unit, enjoining faculty in schools of engineering, public health, law, business, and medicine. The two-part mission of UCLA-STPP is to: (1) evaluate the viability of safer, cleaner, greener, more sustainable substitutes for existing hazardous services, processes, systems, and/or technologies, and (2) employ diffusion analysis to identify institutional, policy, and regulatory barriers to the adoption of viable safer substitutes and prescribe policy changes to overcome key barriers. UCLA-STPP has taken leadership in developing and institutionalizing “alternatives analysis” as policy/regulatory tool as a method to evaluate and identify safer, cleaner, greener, more sustainable substitutes.

UCLA-STPP is employing this alternatives analysis approach to evaluate the commercial viability of using renewable-based NH3 for peak power generation and natural gas for base load power in a camless engine genset system to be installed at a distributed generation pilot demonstration facility in the greater Los Angeles region. Continue reading

Who’s your Favorite Chemical?

Norm Olson, Iowa Energy Center / Chair, NH3 Fuel Association
11th Annual NH3 Fuel Conference, September 22, 2014 Continue reading

Simulation of Fuel Economy of Gasoline-Ethanol-Ammonia Tertiary Fuel Blends for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Shehan Haputhanthri
Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas Tech University

11th Annual NH3 Fuel Conference, September 23, 2014 Continue reading

Ammonia as an alternate transport fuel: Emulsifiers for gasoline ammonia fuel blends and real time engine performance

Shehan Haputhanthri
Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas Tech University

11th Annual NH3 Fuel Conference, September 22, 2014 Continue reading