Tag Archives: Stationary Power: Grid

Basic Co-Firing Characteristics of Ammonia with Pulverized Coal in a Single Burner Test Furnace

Akira Yamamoto*, Masayoshi Kimoto, Yasushi Ozawa, Saburo Hara, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan

15th Annual NH3 Fuel Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, October 31, 2018
NH3 Energy+ Topical Conference at the AIChE Annual Meeting


Ammonia is expected as a potential fuel to substitute fossil fuels, because it does not discharge carbon dioxide and is easily handled by liquefaction. There are several ways for the direct use of ammonia as a fuel; for example, use in fuel cells and combustion devices. One of the possible application is the combustion use in thermal power plants. In particular, co-firing of ammonia in coal-fired power plants seems to have a relatively great advantage on the suppression of greenhouse gases, because coal is one of the main emission source of carbon dioxide. On the other hand, it is concerned that concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which is one of the typical atmospheric pollutant, in the flue gas would considerably increase due to the oxidation of ammonia. To utilize ammonia as a co-firing fuel in existing pulverized coal-fired power plant, without causing additional costs for the modification of the denitration equipment, it is important to develop a combustion technology that can suppress the NOx concentration in the flue gas. Co-firing characteristics of pulverized coal and ammonia, however, had not been evaluated except in the case of very low co-firing rate for the purpose of denitration in the pulverized coal flame. In this study, basic co-firing characteristics of pulverized coal and ammonia were investigated using a bench-scale single burner test furnace. Continue reading

NH3 / N2 / O2 Non-Premixed Flame in a 10 kW Experimental Furnace – Characteristics of Radiative Heat Transfer

Ryuichi Murai1*, Ryohei Omori1, Ryuki Kano1, Yuji Tada1, Hidetaka Higashino1, Noriaki Nakatsuka1, Jun Hayashi1, Fumiteru Akamatsu1, Kimio Iino2, Yasuyuki Yamamoto2, Yoshiyuki Hagiwara2
[1] Osaka University; and [2] Taiyo Nippon Sanso, Japan

NH3 Fuel Conference, Minneapolis, November 1, 2017
AIChE Annual Meeting, Topical Conference: NH3 Energy+


There are severe issues on increasing amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in the world. Many studies are devoted on alternative fuels. One of superior candidates is the utilization of hydrogen energy which can realize a low-carbon and hydrogen-based society. Ammonia might play an important role which is zero emission of CO2, and is useful for hydrogen energy carrier as a clean energy. Additionally, ammonia is an easily-liquefiable fuel with pressure of about 0.86 MPa and temperature of 293 K. Commercially, ammonia is produced in large quantity by the Haber–Bosch process. It is also to be produced by using catalyst with renewable energy sources, such as wind energy and solar energy. Continue reading

Methods for Low NOx Combustion in Ammonia / Natural Gas Dual Fuel Gas Turbine Combustor

Shogo Onishi1*, Shintaro Ito1, Masahiro Uchida1, Soichiro Kato1, Tsukasa Saito1, Toshiro Fujimori1, Hideaki Kobayashi2
[1] IHI Corporation, [2] Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Japan

NH3 Fuel Conference, Minneapolis, November 1, 2017
AIChE Annual Meeting, Topical Conference: NH3 Energy+


Ammonia is a carbon-free fuel, so it has potential to reduce carbon dioxide emission from power plants when used as a fuel. However, combustion characteristics of ammonia are notably different from hydrocarbon fuels, especially regarding NOx emission [1]. The nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule may cause high NOx emission. Therefore, special techniques to reduce NOx emission are essential for gas turbine combustors which burn ammonia and natural gas. The results of our previous study [2] showed the characteristics of NOx emission in single-stage combustion. In this study, the concept for low-emission combustion in two-stage combustion has been examined numerically and experimentally. Continue reading

Detailed Observation of Coal-Ammonia Co-Combustion Processes

Noriaki Nakatsuka*, Junpei Fukui, Kazuki Tainaka, Hidetaka Higashino, Jun Hayashi, Fumiteru Akamatsu
Osaka University, Japan

NH3 Fuel Conference, Minneapolis, November 1, 2017
AIChE Annual Meeting, Topical Conference: NH3 Energy+


Coal-fired power generation is supplying about 30% of the world’s primary energy. Almost all of coal-fired power plants in Japan employ the pulverized coal combustion method. In the pulverized coal combustion, coal is pulverized into a powder of several tens of microns. This method enables to burn coal effectively because of the large surface to volume ratio. Pulverized coal particles are supplied to the actual boilers with primary air whose Air/Coal ratio (mass flow rate of primary air/mass flow rate of pulverized coal) is set to 2.0. Co-combustion of coal with ammonia has been studied with the aim of reducing CO2 emissions in coal boilers and coal power plants in terms of a concept to use ammonia as a renewable fuel from solar, wind, etc. Continue reading

Combustion Emissions from NH3 Fuel Gas Turbine Power Generation Demonstrated

Osamu Kurata1*, Norihiko Iki1, Takahiro Inoue1, Takayuki Matsunuma1, Taku Tsujimura2, Hirohide Furutani2, Hideaki Kobayashi3, Akihiro Hayakawa3
[1] National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); [2] Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, AIST (FREA); and [3] Tohoku University, Japan

NH3 Fuel Conference, Minneapolis, November 1, 2017
AIChE Annual Meeting, Topical Conference: NH3 Energy+


To protect against global warming, a massive influx of renewable energy is expected. Although H2 is a renewable media, its storage and transportation in large quantity is difficult. NH3 fuel, however, is an H2 energy carrier and carbon-free fuel, and its storage and transportation technology is already established. Although NH3 fuel combustion was studied in the 1960s in the USA, the development of an NH3 fuel gas turbine had been abandoned because combustion efficiency was unacceptably low [1]. Recent demand for H2 energy carrier revives the usage of NH3 fuel, but no one has attempted an actual design setup for NH3 fuel gas turbine power generation. The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in Japan collaborated with Tohoku University successfully performed NH3-kerosene gas turbine power generation in 2014, and NH3 fuel gas turbine power generation in 2015 [2]. Continue reading

Thermochemical energy storage with ammonia and implications for ammonia as a fuel

Adrienne Lavine
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, USA

NH3 Fuel Conference, Los Angeles, September 19, 2016


This seminar presents recent advances in ammonia-based thermochemical energy storage1 (TCES), supported by an award from the US Department of Energy SunShot program. The goal of SunShot is to “reduce the total installed cost of solar energy systems to $.06 per kWh by 2020.” Within the arena of concentrating solar thermal power, Sunshot has established goals for each subsytem, including reducing the cost of the energy storage subsystem to $15 per kWht of stored energy and enabling working fluid temperatures greater than 600°C, consistent with advanced, high performance power blocks. Continue reading

Electro-Synthesis of Ammonia for Grid Scale Energy Storage

Shekar Balagopal1*, Matt Robbins1, Alvare Javier1, Marc Flinders1, Joshua Johnston1, Fernando Garzon2, Jamie Gomez2, Cortney Kreller3, Rangachary Mukundan3, Yu Seung Kim3
1 Ceramatec Inc, 2 University of New Mexico, and 3 Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA

NH3 Fuel Conference, Los Angeles, September 20, 2016


Ceramatec Inc., in partnership with its partners, will develop a lower temperature and higher efficiency membrane process to synthesize ammonia for energy storage. Continue reading

Piloting a Combined Heat and Power / Distributed Generation System, Powered by Carbon-Free, Renewable-Based Anhydrous Ammonia


The UCLA Sustainable Technology & Policy Program (UCLA-STPP) serves as the host of the 2016 NH3 Fuel Conference.

Peter Sinsheimer
Executive Director, UCLA-STPP, Los Angeles, CA

including NH3 Engine Overview
Eddie Sturman, Sturman Industries, USA

13th Annual NH3 Fuel Conference, September 20, 2016


UCLA-STPP is an interdisciplinary science / policy research unit, enjoining faculty in schools of engineering, public health, law, business, and medicine. The two-part mission of UCLA-STPP is to: (1) evaluate the viability of safer, cleaner, greener, more sustainable substitutes for existing hazardous services, processes, systems, and/or technologies, and (2) employ diffusion analysis to identify institutional, policy, and regulatory barriers to the adoption of viable safer substitutes and prescribe policy changes to overcome key barriers. UCLA-STPP has taken leadership in developing and institutionalizing “alternatives analysis” as policy/regulatory tool as a method to evaluate and identify safer, cleaner, greener, more sustainable substitutes.

UCLA-STPP is employing this alternatives analysis approach to evaluate the commercial viability of using renewable-based NH3 for peak power generation and natural gas for base load power in a camless engine genset system to be installed at a distributed generation pilot demonstration facility in the greater Los Angeles region. Continue reading

Ammonia Fuel — It Works, Now What

Keynote Speech

Steve Wittrig, Clean Air Task Force
Tenth Annual NH3 Fuel Conference, September 23, 2013
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Anhydrous Ammonia: a Battery for Stranded and Excess Energy Sources

Hans Vrijenhoef
Proton Ventures
Tenth Annual NH3 Fuel Conference, September 23, 2013
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