Direct Ammonia Fuel Cells (DAFC)
Direct ammonia fuel cells use ammonia without a cracking step to produce hydrogen.
Solid oxide fuel cells have been shown to work well with direct ammonia feed, and more recently DAFCs based on proton-conducting ceramic electrolytes and molten salt electrolytes have been developed. These fuel cells will enable high efficiency conversion of ammonia to electric power, and thus be able to take advantage of the superior energy density storage of ammonia compared to hydrogen.
NH3 Fuel Conference Papers
2012: Intermediate-Temperature Tubular Direct Ammonia Fuel Cells [PDF]
2010: Performance of a Ceramic, Intermediate-Temperature Direct NH3 Fuel Cell [PDF]
2009: A Regenerative Direct Ammonia Fuel Cell — Concept Model [PDF]
2008: Planar Intermediate Temperature Direct Ammonia Fuel Cell [PDF]
2007: An Intermediate Temperature Direct Ammonia Fuel Cell [PDF]
2006: Direct Ammonia Fuel Cell — Recent Results and State of the Art [PDF]
2005: Ammonia Fuel Cell Systems [PDF]
NHThree SSAS: Solid State Ammonia Synthesis, producing ammonia from air, water, and electricity